Monday, December 23, Cancer line Cancer: In crabby person, cells discriminate and grow un wanglelably, forming malignant tumors, and invade nigh part of the body.
New research tools are revolutionising cancer therapies Right: T cells attacking cancer cells. Invariably, my answer was metastatic melanoma. Although a primary melanoma could be cured surgically if it was caught early — and could often be avoided altogether by heeding sun-protection messages — once the disease began spreading it progressed rapidly.
These days we have at least three lines of therapy for treating melanoma, and patients are surviving for years.
This is why the side-effects of chemotherapy tend to appear in tissue that is constantly dividing, including the lining of the mouth and bowel, hair follicles and the bone marrow cells that replenish blood cells.
Fortunately, a higher percentage of cells in the cancer are dividing at any given time, and normal tissues recover better between chemotherapy treatments than the cancer can. We have long known that cancers are caused by mutations in the DNA that makes up the genes in the cell.
Some mutations are inherited; some are acquired if we are exposed to certain substances. If we can identify the mutations, their proteins and the signalling pathways involved, then therapies can be designed to stop the cancer growing.
Where genetics concentrates on single genes, genomics looks at all our genes, how they relate to each other and how they influence the growth of tissues. It also allowed us to pinpoint the different mutations in individual cancers.
We can now measure the abnormal protein produced by the mutated gene to screen for cancer, help diagnose cancer and track the effects of treatment.
Next-generation DNA sequencing has taken this development a step further. Rather than looking for single gene mutations or sequencing sections of DNA relatively slowly, we can very rapidly sequence the whole genome.
New bioinformatic techniques and significant computational resources can handle the very large amount of data collected through this process. A whole genome sequence corresponds to approximately one terabyte of raw data.
Next-generation sequencing can identify mutations in cancers that are not present in normal cells, and we can then target the proteins they produce with specific treatments.
New high-throughput screening procedures can test thousands of compounds, identifying those that have the greatest impact on the cancer and the least effect on anything else. The first was developed more than fifty years ago, inafter the discovery of the oestrogen receptor on breast cancers.
Seventy per cent of women with breast cancer have these receptors, which act as a conduit for the oestrogen that fuels the cancer. Blocking the receptor with tamoxifen destroys the cancer cell. The protein produced by that gene, a tyrosine kinase, is part of the pathway that signals the cells to divide.
One of the early treatment successes was a small molecule, imatinib, which inhibits the action of the tyrosine kinase.
As one of the first of the therapies to target the tumour in this way, and as evidence of the potential of targeted therapy, imatinib even made it onto the cover of Time magazine.
These advances bring us back to the enormous progress in the treatment of melanomas, which no longer top my list of most-feared cancers. The first breakthrough came in the early s, when it was found that about half of all melanomas have a mutation in a cancer-promoting gene, BRAF, which activates a protein called BRAF kinase that is part of the signalling pathway regulating cell growth.
A new drug, vemurafenibwas found to inhibit this protein and was approved for use in Following successful small studies of vemurafenib in patients with melanoma with a BRAF mutation, Paul Chapman and his colleagues in the BRIM-3 Study Group published the findings of a randomised study comparing vemurafenib to the older chemotherapy treatment, dacarbazine.
Vemurafenib improved survival, once again highlighting the potential of targeting the proteins involved in the signalling pathways. One type of immunotherapy uses antibodies to target the proteins found on foreign invaders like viruses and bacteria.
Monoclonal antibodies — antibodies all of one type — can be manufactured to target a protein on a cancer cell, which can in turn trigger the immune system to attack the cell.
This is how we have come to deal with the HER2 gene, which is associated with an aggressive type of breast cancer. Copies of HER2 are higher in around a fifth of breast cancers, making it a vital biomarker for the condition. When a new antibody, trastuzumab, is added to chemotherapy for women found to have the HER2 gene, the chances of surviving breast cancer for ten years increase from 75 per cent to 84 per cent.
I vividly recall this result receiving a standing ovation when it was presented at the American Society of Clinical Oncology meeting in Another antibody of this kind is rituximab, which targets a protein on some types of lymphoma and improves the outcomes of low- and intermediate-grade lymphomas by about 13 per cent.
Monoclonal antibodies can also be used to carry other toxins — a cytotoxic agent which kills cells or a radioactive particle — to the cancer.And when you're 60, in theory at least, you have personal days banked, a nest egg, a pension, and someone already lined up to love you in sickness and in health.
Paying markets for personal essay writing courses for better health and personal growth: Writing About Cancer, Writing for Personal Caregivers, Your Life in Essays, Writing Personal Essays, and therapeutic courses for health care professionals. Welcome to the internet’s first page of quotes dedicated to those who are fighting cancer or who have survived it, and for loved ones of those dealing with cancer.
No matter which category describes you, whether the difficulties lie ahead or behind, I hope you find comfort, inspiration, and. "I would lay in the glow of the tanning bed, tears welling in my eyes, and will my body to turn against me.".
As you read the passage below, consider how Paul Bogard uses. evidence, such as facts or examples, to support claims. reasoning to develop ideas and to connect claims and evidence.
Best Books of by The Hispanic Reader; Bronze Award for Essays in ForeWord Review's Book of the Year Awards; Second Place for Best Biography in English in the International Latino Book Awards "On good days I feel I am a bridge.
On bad days I just feel alone," Sergio Troncoso writes in this riveting collection of sixteen personal essays in which he seeks to connect the humanity of his.